Sungandavirtton: The Abolisher of Tolls

TFC also sends this along:
South Indian Inscriptions Volume_3 – Inscriptions of Virarajendra I @

“In an earlier part of this volume, it was shown that Raja kesarivarman alias Virarajendradeva I., the victory at Kudalsangamam, must have reigned in the period intervening between the reigns of Rajendradeva and of Kulottunga I.,[1] and that, apparently, his immediate predecessor was Rajakesarivarman alias Rajamahendradeva,[2]   and his immediate successor Parakesarivarman alias Adhirajendradeva.[3]  Since then, Professor Kielhorn’s calculations of the dates of an inscription at Belaturu[4] and of another at Manimangalam (No. 29 above) have established the fact that Rajendradeva ascended the throne (approximately) on the 28th May A.D. 1052,[5] while the reign of Kulottunga I. commenced (approximately) on the 9th June A.D. 1070.[6]  Further, Professor Kielhorn has shown that the date of the Manimangalam inscription of the 5th year of Virarajendra I. (No. 30 above) probably corresponds to Monday, the 10th September A.D. 1067, and that, consequently, this king ascended the throne in A.D. 1062-63.[7]
That Rajamahendra reigned between Rajendradeva and Kulottunga I., may be concluded from an Alangudi inscription of the 6th year of Parakesarivarman alias Tribhuvanachakravartin Rajarajadeva (II.),[8] which quotes successively the three following earlier dates : –
(a) Line 22. – “the third year of the lord Vijaya-Rajendradeva, who was pleased to conquer Kalyanapuram and Kollapuram and to fall asleep (i.e.,  to die[9] in battle) on an elephant.”  This statement must refer to Parakesarivarman alias Rajendradeva, who is known to have set up a pillar of victory at Kollapuram.[10]
(b) L. 55.- “the third year of king Rajakesarivarman (alias) the lord Sri-Rajamahendradeva, who, while the law of Manu[11] flourished (as) of old, rescued the great earth from being the common property (of other kings), dispelled (with his) sceptre the dark Kali (age), and was pleased to be seated on the throne of heroes under the shade of a red parasol.”
© L. 63.- “the thirty-fifth year of the glorious Kulottunga-Choladeva, who was pleased to rule after having abolished tolls.”   This refers to Kulottunga I., who bore the surname Sungandavirtton,[12] i.e., ‘the abolisher of tolls.’”

Another reference to tolls in India is here:

No. 598 (Page No 418)
(A. R. No. 598 of 1907)
Nandaluru, Rajampet Taluk, Cuddapah District
Saumyanatha temple – on the same place, left side
This is dated in Saka 1172, Saumya, Rishabha, ba. 15, Friday, Rohini corresponding to A.D. 1249, May 14, Saka year being current on which day there is stated to have been a solar eclipse. It records a gift of all the tolls including the ‘maganmai’ dues leviable at Nirandanur, for the expenses of the several festivals in the temple of Sokkapperumal, by one Perumal-Pillai the headman of Kaliyur and a toll officer, to secure the well-being of Madurantaka Pottappichchola Gandagopalar alias Manma-siddharasa. The record is incomplete.

The historical ideal of toll-free travel

TFC writes in about the

Ramkhamhaeng Inscription
Ramkhamhaeng Inscription

Ramkhamhaeng Inscription:

In the time of King Ram Khamhang this land of Sukhothai is thriving. There is fish in the water and rice in the fields. The lord of the realm does not levy toll on his subjects for traveling the roads; they lead their cattle to trade or ride their horses to sell; whoever wants to trade in elephants, does so; whoever wants to trade in horses, does so; whoever wants to trade in silver or gold, does so. When any commoner or man of rank dies, his estate–his elephants, wives, children, granaries, rice, retainers, and groves of areca and betel–is left in its entirety to his children. When commoners or men of rank differ and disagree, [the King] examines the case to get at the truth and then settles it justly for them. He does not connive with thieves or favor concealers [of stolen goods]. When he sees someone’s rice he does not covet it; when he sees someone’s wealth he does not get angry. If anyone riding an elephant comes to see him to put his own country under his protection, he helps him, treats him generously, and takes care of him; if [someone comes to him] with no elephants, no horses, no young men or women of rank, no silver or gold, he gives him some, and helps him until he can establish a state [of his own]. When he captures enemy warriors, he does not kill them or beat them. He has hung a bell in the opening of the gate over there: if any commoner in the land has a grievance which sickens his belly and gripes his heart, and which he wants to make known to his ruler and lord, it is easy: he goes and strikes the bell which the King has hung there; King Ram Khamhang, the ruler of the kingdom, hears the call; he goes and questions the man, examines the case, and decides it justly for him. So the people of … Sukhothai praise him…

Early 13th century obelisk inscription. The implication of this structure of righteous rule is that toll roads were the standard and toll free was idealistic.
Now, I could have sworn one of the earlier Gupta period inscriptions in India bore something similar but my Sanskrit is non-existent.

There is controversy about this, and some writers insist, controversially, that is fake. (Sydney Morning Herald, Nevertheless, some things are interesting fakes. And the idea that a 19th century monarch “discovers” that the ideal of a 13th century monarch was toll free roads is suggestive of how people feel things *should* be.

Origins and Destiny

In English transportation-speak, the opposite of origin is destination. Why?

from Latin origo (“beginning, source, birth, origin”) from oriri (“to rise”); see orient.
"The beginning of something. The source of a river, information, goods, etc."


from Latin dēstinātiōnem, from dēstināre (“to destine”) - To intend or mean.
"Purpose for which anything is destined; predetermined end, object, or use; ultimate design.
The place set for the end of a journey, or to which something is sent; place or point aimed at."

Destiny comes

from Old French destinee.
That to which any person or thing is destined; a predetermined state; a condition foreordained by the Divine or by human will; fate; lot; doom.
The fixed order of things; invincible necessity; fate; an irresistible power or agency conceived of as determining the future, whether in general or of an individual.

The opposite of Orient is Occident, yet we don’t speak of Origins and Occidens.
Occidēns in Latin has the connotation of “falling down (of heavenly bodies), going down, setting, perishing, dying, passing away being lost, being undone, being ruined”. Perhaps that is too permanent. One does not return from Occidens, but it seems one cannot undo one’s destiny either.

Linklist: August 8, 2011

CNN/Money: Gas tax may be next Tea Party target “A bill was recently introduced by Senate Republicans that would allow states to opt out of the federal highway program.”
Alex Marshall: Turning Transportation Infrastructure into a Publicly Traded Asset “There is really no denying that transportation makes money. Just consider the huge shopping malls perched around interstate off-ramps, the office parks positioned close to airports, the skyscrapers next to subway stations. But transportation itself is usually a money loser. We pour billions of public dollars into highways, airports and transit systems, while others, the home builders, the department store mavens, make the money that comes slows from those public investments. Hong Kong’s metro system, MTR, has changed this equation, and that is why it’s worth looking at.”

Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice

Effect of mode shares on mode choice
Effect of mode shares on mode choice

This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from the University of Minnesota. The results indicate that the presence of mode shares in the mode choice model does influence the decision of travelers.